Piedmont is a region which occupies the western part of the Po valley, the alpine arc consisting of the area between the Cadibona Hills and the San Giacomo Pass, and the first part of the Ligurian Alps. Its territory is, therefore, made up of a mountainous area, a hilly area (Langhe and Monferrato) and a flat area (divided into two zones separated by the Dora Riparia, the Cunese plains and the northern area made up of the Canedese, the Vercellese, the Novarese and the Lomellina). The range of the territory and consequent climate of Piedmont influences the food production of the region, which is as diverse as the cuisine of Piedmont, very rich and deeply rooted in tradition.
Vine growing is highly developed in the hills of the Astigiano and Alessandrino. The plains are used for the cultivation of wheat, maize, oats, hemp and fodder. The largest area of rice cultivation in Italy is in the Vercellese plains. The pastures in the mountains and on the plains offer excellent opportunity for raising cattle, especially bovine.