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It suffered barbarian invasions, passed under the domination of Byzantium, obtained a certain independence with the advent of the Longobards and subsequent Frankish domination. Exposed to Saracen raids, it rebelled against Byzantium in the 11th century with the interested help of the Normans, who made it a principality. It was part of the Reign of Sicily, the Reign of Naples, and the Reign of the Two Sicilies prior to Italian unity. The history and culture of Apulia bear profound marks of the Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Arabs, Normans, Franks, Spanish and other populations which left indelible traces of their
presence. The contact with such different ethnic groups and cultures has strewn the Apulian territory with archeological finds, castles, towers, cathedrals, urban and rural buildings and other monuments built in a vast range of styles, reinterpreted by the peoples of Apulia, who created an authentic "stone culture" of their own. The dialects, traditions and cultures which still today characterize the various Apulian peoples seem to be reflected in the geomorphological features of the areas they inhabit. Profound historical-cultural and geographical-environmental diversities distinguisch the areas of Capitanata, the Land of Bari, of Salento and the Ionic Land which compose the Apulian territory, and which correspond more or less to the presentday provinces of Foggia, Bari, Brindisi, Lecce and Taranto; in fact, the area was long known.as "the Apulias", and in some foreign languages it is still designated with the plural. What the culture and knowledgeable hand of man have built, refined and shaped to their measure across the millennia blends with the favorable climate, limpid sea, everpresent sunshine, sandy and rocky
coastlines, verdant islands, characteristic grottos and other beauties generously profused by nature on this land. The kind southern character, the natural openness of the people, a truly typical cuisine, exquisite wines, religious, and popular festivals, historical commemorations, cultural events and endless hospitality facilities, modern and diversified, create a particularly warm atmosphere.
In Apulia, there is tourist accommodation available in hotels, farm holiday, farmhouse, residence self-catering accommodation, b&b, rooms for rent, holiday homes, camp sites and tourist villages.