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The name of Alberese first appears in the XIth century, when the Benedictine Abbey of Santa Maria Alborense was founded, subsequently called San Rabano and destined to dominate the history of the entire area for the fifty years which followed. With the crisis of the monastic order, the Abbey fell into decline, and its long history closes with the passage of the Knights of Malta. In 1470, Beuccio Capacci, prior of the order, had a fortified building constructed which today is the Villa Fattoria Granducale which overlooks the town.
At the end of the 1500's, rule passed to the Medici family, up until the coming of the Corsini, in 1740, who, in 100 years, reduced the town to quite desperate conditions. It was then that, in 1839, Leopoldo II of Lorraine decided to purchase the Alberese estate and to undertake the work of reclaiming and developing the lands which had now become marshland, of improving the equipment and introducing new methods of cultivation. This, until the First World War broke out and following which, the holdings of the Lorraine, administered by the duke Pietro Lante della Rovere, were confiscated and passed to the State. Finally, in 1926, Alberese was ceded to the Opera Nazionale Combattenti (the Military Veterans association) which, during the fascist period, finished the reclamation work, dividing the land into lots and building farms which were then assigned to families of share-croppers, the most of whom came from the Veneto region. In 1977, this association was abolished and the lands were purchased by the Region of Tuscany, which, still today, administers them.
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