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The town grew up on the ancient Ligurian, Etruscan and Roman settlements that developed around the road network the was later to become the Via Cassia. The Romans exploited the rich springs in the area to build the aqueduct that supplied Florence with water. Calenzano is still crowned by its castle, built in the early 10th cent. by the Counts Guidi, together with those of Mount Morello, Legri and Travalle. Its position gave it an important military as well as residential function but it was captured and fired by Castruccio Castracani in 1325 and later by the Milanese troups of the Visconti.
However the town's position on the Cassia gave it a continuous and flourishing development over the centuries. Note the Churches of San Donato (9th-10th cent.), San Severo a Legri (11th-12th cent.), Santa Maria a Carraia (10th cent.); the Church of San Niccol˛, Villa Peragallo, the villages of Sommaia, Travalle, Legri and all the lovely surrounding countryside of woods, olive groves, hills and mountains.
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