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Foligno lies to the left of the Topino River, along the south-eastern plain of the Valle Umbria. The city's favourable location, with its extensive road and railway network has benefited the development of a solid economy which is evident in various avantgarde industrial and handicraft industries. Foligno, like many Umbrian municipalities situated in locations of economic or military importance, had to endure over many centuries, invasions, occupations, pillage, civil struggles, destruction and reconstruction.
The Umbrians, who founded Foligno, were succeeded by the Romans whom in the second century b.C. made Foligno become a Roman municipality and an important staging post along the Via Flaminia. Foligno, after a period of peace and prosperity, which lasts until the fall of the Roman Empire and after being spared by the Longobards is devastated and ravaged by the Saracen (881) and by the Hungarians (924). In the 12th century Foligno becomes an independent municipality loyal to the Empire (Ghibelline) which was in continuous rivalry with Perugia (Guelph) loyal to the Papacy.
Foligno's independence does not last long because in the 13th century the Church conquers the city. In 1227, the troupes of Frederick II, bring the Ghibellines back to power, but at the beginning of the 14th century, the Papal Vicar Rinaldo Trinci defeats them and obtains the dominion of the city in alliance and loyalty to the Church. Foligno, under the Trinci, extends its rule to many of the cities nearby (Assisi, Spello, Montefalco). In the 15th century Foligno comes under the control of the Papacy once more and remains under its domain until 1860, when it becomes part of the Kingdom of Italy.
Sights to see: Church of S. Maria Infraportas (11th-12th cent.); Church of St. Francis (13th cent.); Church of St. Nicholas (14th cent.); Church of the Holy Saviour (14th cent.); Oratory of the Nunziatella (15th cent.), frescos by Perugino; Church of St. Augustine (18th cent.); Church of Suffragio (18th cent.); Trinci Palace (14th cent.), seat of the Municipal Picture Gallery, Archaeological Museum and Library; Orfini Palace (15th cent.); Old Hospital (16th cent.); Cantagalli Palace (16th cent.); Candiotti Palace (18th cent.).
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