The history

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The immortale history of the eternal city begins traditionally in the 753 to C with its foundation from part of Romolo. The centuries succeeded to you, the so-called monarchic age, are characterize from the succession of seven king and the elaboration of myths and legends to you that costituiranno the religious patrimony and cultural future. In the 509 a.C, with the hunting of Tarquinio the Arrogant one, at first inaugurates the republican phase in which Rome it extends its dominion more and more, to the Lazio and Italy all, then to Greece and its celebre antagonist Cartagine. The expansionistic sights of Rome turn hour to Europe and lands of the east, while it grows from the administrative political point of view and still today codifies the fundamental principles of the so-called ius romanum (straight roman) to the base of the modern jurisprudence. Social problematic new, which the economic difference, deteminato from the impoverishment of war years, the famous lands hunger like agrarian issue, the fight for the citizenship, the revolt of the slaves, mark the more bloody-thirsty period of the republic. Fundamental personages are the Gracchi, Spartaco, Mario and Silla and Cicerone. To the crisis Giulio answers Cesar who with its enterprises in Gallia raises consents and confidence from part of the people and the Senate. The power of Cesar grows and its more emblematic Victoria is the conquest of Egypt di Cleopatra. Its power is shaped already like something of various from one democratic. Its successor, Augusto, new type of government for Rome inaugurates one officially: the principato one. The aureum saeculum, as it comes called the period of its power, is characterized from a great urbanistico renewal of the citta that it finally lives years of peace and great cultural ferments, while grows the concept of divinizzazione of the emperor.

From the dead women of Augusto(14 d.C) in then it is spoken about imperial Rome with a power centralized in the hands of the emperor and the limitation of the Senate to pure organism consultivo. Sono years characterizes to you from intrigues of palace and bloody-thirsty personages crowds and like Caligola and Nerone, eccezion made for Traiano, with which roman imperialism it catches up its maximum expansion, and Mark Aurelio, the emperor philosopher. The absence of able men to the guide of Rome and the fragmentation of its power, after the division in empire of the West and East with Costantinopoli center, deteminano soon the first pressures of the Barbarian people to the western borders of the empire. The deprived of hope lasted attempt of defense many years will fail definitively in the 476 d. C with the fall of the last imperatore: Romolo Augusto. The first centuries of the High Middle Ages are rather consider oxen you for Rome that will return to ricoquistare the ancient importance when in IX the century Carl deep Magno the Sacred Roman Empire and ago of the city the imperial center of the West contrapposto to Bisanzio. Rome makes guarantor of the western Catholicism in opposition the ortodossia orients them bizantina.

The first years of the Umanesimo and the cultural renewal in action ideal city searches for Rome the idea of one. Great artists arrive: from the Alberti, to Raffaello; from the Cellini to Coveting. The construction of the Vaticans, the papal interest for the ancient world, the great private collections of antiquity make of the cinquecentesca Rome a dynamic and prestigious center. The affectation of the papal wealth and its little opening towards the philosophical thought and the scientific progresses will carry to scandalous sentences from part of the Inquisizione, from that one of Tawny Giordano to the scomunica of Galileo. The illuministici revolutionary ferments make to bloom in Italy all the requirement freedom democratic. The napoleonica adventure, than in 1797 enters in the papal State and of ago a republic, is resolved in an illusion after the Conference of Vienna (1815) that it restores the status quo ante and it gives back to the pontefice Rome and the annexed terrirori to it. In 800 the "contemporary intellectual romantici" they make to not more rinascere the "myth" of Rome in imperialist centralizing key and, but democratic and republican: it is the center historically adapted to characterize the cohesion of people. The independence wars carry to the Unification of the peninsula that places its understood them to Turin, before, and Florence then. The successive one taken of Rome, with the rubble of Devout Door of 1870, ago of the city of the Papi the understood one them of Italy and the Italians. Benito Mussolini in the second ventennio of the 900 made to live again the authority of the city going to recover reinterpretandole simbologie and myths of the ancient Rome to the aim of legittimare the fascist power. Center of the greater ones you debate yourself political and economic, the understood one often is prechosen them to world-wide like important place cultural, artistic manifestations and sport level. It is place of numerous pilgrimages, "Saint" city for the presence of the Pontefice, in 2000 has celebrated the last Giubileo. Famous, moreover, for films historical which Vacations Roman and the Sweet Life, still simple in the typical narrow lanes of the antichi quarters, Rome risplende still today of a fascination all its and one solennit conferred them from centuries of history and its solemn ones vestigia.

Dott.ssa Myriam Di Mare graduated in Archaeology, Etruscologia and Italiche Antiquity

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