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Volterra is prevalently Medieval and yet cherishes abundant evidence of the Etruscan period: the Porta all'Arco (the Etruscan gate) which date from the 4th century B.C., the Acropolis, the defensive walls which are still visible in parts of the town.
The Roman period is attested by the important remains of the Teatro di Vallebona which date back to the Augustan period, the Baths and an enormous rectangular water cistern.
The Middle Ages are not only visible in its urban structure but too in its buildings, its hause-towers and churches: the Palazzo dei Priori, a 13th century building, the Palazzo Pretorio, with its crenellated Tower of the Little Pig, the pair of towers of Buonparenti and Bonaguidi family, the house-towers of Toscano family, the Cathedral (12th century), the Baptistry (13th century) streaked with Volterran stone, the conventual Church of San Francesco with its adjacent chapel of the Croce di Giorno, the Church of San Michele and of San Alessandro.
The Renaissance period has influenced Volterra in a particular way, however without changing the Medieval atmosphere. Some good examples are the Palazzo Minucci-Solaini, beautifully inserted among the Medieval hause-towers, the Palazzo Incontr Vitii with its theatre Persio Flacco added in the courtyard in the 19th century, the Palazzo Inghirami, the Palazzo Ruggieri, the Convent of San Girolamo with the terracotta statues of Della Robbia and the Medicean Fortress which looms over the Medieval town.